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Study of different hydraulic response models to large earthquakes in two adjacent wells:the effect of shales

ZHANG Yan;FU LiYun;CHEN XueZhong;CAO ChengHao;ZHAO LianFeng;Ma YuChuan;Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics,Institute of Geology and Geophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences;University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;Institutions of Earth Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences;China University of Petroleum(East China),School of Geosciences;Institute of Geophysics,China Earthquake Administration;China Earthquake Networks Center;  
Large earthquakes induced different co-seismic water-level responses in Zuojiazhuang and Baodi wells(~50 km apart).Barometric responses and tidal responses are used to explain this anomaly in this study.After analysis,shale was found in the aquifer lithology of well Baodi.The well is found to be significantly influenced by fractures,and has a poor water confining ability.It is likely that the complex fractures or anisotropy of shale lead to a semi-confined aquifer,and as calculated,vertical drainage occurred in the aquifer stratum.Therefore,we separate the 2 wells into 2 models—the horizontal flow model,and the(pure)horizontal flow +(pure)vertical flow model.Because of the influence of fractures,the aquifer medium of well Baodi has a good hydraulic connection with the outside field even before the occurrence of earthquakes,thus,the difference in pore pressure between the well aquifer and the outside field is small,leading to a tiny(or even none)co-seismic permeability increase,and those might be the reasons why the co-seismic water-level changes in Baodi well are always small and unclear.
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