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《Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences》 2006-01
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Two Modes of Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies in the Tropical Indian Ocean: Monopole,Dipole and Their Interactions

DU Zhen-Cai~(1),TAN Yan-Ke~(1),ZHANG Ren-He~(2),HE Jin-Hai~(3),and LIU Hui-Rong~(1)1 Institute of Meteorology,PLA University of Science and Technology,Nanjing 2111012 Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences,Beijing 1000813 Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology,Nanjing 210044  
Based on the last 5 decadal sea surface temperature(SST) data,the spatial distributions and multi-time scale of the SST anomalies(SSTA) in the tropical Indian Ocean(TIO) and their interactions are investigated.The results show that the spatial distributions of SSTA are characterized by monopole with the same anomalous signs in basin-scale and by dipole with the reverse signs in the western and eastern TIO.The monopoles are characterized not only by warming tendency but by interannual variations,while the dipoles are just dominated by the interannual variations.After subtracting the monopole reconstructed by the empirical orthogonal function(EOF) results,the western and eastern TIO SSTA turn out to be significantly anticorrelated,and the EOF analyses of the 17 typical dipole events show that the areas of the positive and negative SSTA appear to be immovable.The composite analysis of the TIO SSTA shows that the two counterparts evolve out-of-phase absolutely.These results demonstrate that the evolution of the dipole itself is rather a local seesaw-style oscillation.The influence of monopole on dipole is different from long-range tendency to interannual timescale.The long-range tendency shortens the lifecycle of the dipole.In the cold episode,the tropical Indian Ocean SSTA shift from negative monopole to positive dipole,finally to negative monopole,and the dipole anomalous signals appear in the western Indian Ocean first.While in the warm period,the SSTA alter from positive monopole to positive dipole,eventually to positive monopole,and the abnormal signals of dipole exist in the eastern Indian Ocean first.At the interannual timescale,the SSTA experience from negative monopole to positive dipole to positive monopole.The dipole occurs in the course of transition from one kind of monopole to another.During this shift the TIO SSTA appear to migrate from west to east obviously.The dipole is also influenced by the basin-wide long-range warming tendency significantly.After subtracting the monopole reconstructed by EOF,the SSTA of western and eastern TIO show distinct negative correlation,but they show distinct positive correlation when the monopole is taken into account.It turns out that the basin-wide warming conceals some dipole events,for example the strong negative dipole in 1996 and 1998 respectively.Except some strong dipole events(e.g.,1997),the SSTA with the same sign in the warm period show the magnitude differences of the east and the west in TIO,i.e.,an SSTA zonal gradient exists across the basin,which directly results in the doubts of the existence of dipole.Actually,the dipole and the warm tendency are completely independent in the temporal and spatial distributions.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金资助项目40405010、40225012、40275014
【CateGory Index】: P732.1
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