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《Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences》 2006-01
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The Comparison Between Two Versions of the GOALS Model on the Atmospheric Energy Cycle Diagnosis

ZHANG Tao,WU Guo-Xiong,and GUO Yu-FuState Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics,Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100029  
The atmospheric energy cycle diagnosis is a suitable way towards understanding and improvement of climate models.The global mean values of energy cycle from two versions of the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics(LASG),Institute of Atmospheric Physics(IAP) Global OceanAtmosphereLand System (GOALS) Model(GOALS-2 and GOALS-4) are firstly diagnosed and compared with observational estimates,then the zonal mean contributions to energy cycle reservoirs and conversions are investigated to explain the ameliorations and deteriorations of global integral values,and to diagnose the effects of changes in parameterization schemes.The results show that the two versions of GOALS model are capable of reproducing the main features of global energy cycle with reasonable accuracy.Specifically,zonal available potential energy(A_(Z)) is converted into available potential energy of stationary eddy(A_(SE)) and transient eddy(A_(TE)),eddy available potential energy is converted into eddy kinetic energy,and the energy conversion induced by transient eddy appears to be larger.Reservoirs of stationary and transient eddy available potential energy(A_(SE) and A_(TE)) have about the same energy content.The nonlinear conversion between the two eddy reservoirs of available potential energy is directed from the stationary to the transient reservoir.The reservoir of zonal kinetic energy (K_(Z)) is about as 11.5 times large as the sum of the reservoirs of stationary eddy and transient eddy kinetic energy(K_(SE) and K_(TE)).The reservoir of transient eddy kinetic energy(K_(TE)) is between two(January) and three times(July) larger than that of stationary eddy kinetic energy(K_(SE)).Barotropic conversions(C_(K_S) and C_(K_T)) are directed from eddy kinetic energy to zonal kinetic energy.Apart from this basic accordance of observational and model results,it is indicated that the GOALS models also exhibit some significant deviations.Two conversions even show an orientation opposite to their observational counterpart,the zonal conversion C_(Z) between the zonal reservoirs of available potential energy and kinetic energy and the nonlinear conversion(C_(K_(TE)-K_(SE))) between K_(SE) and K_(TE).The analysis of zonal mean cross sections of energy cycle reservoirs and conversions shows that the better simulation of global integral values in the older GOALS-2 version is mostly due to the cancellation of errors of different sign,while the improvements of the representation of certain local processes in the new GOALS-4 version in some cases lead to a deterioration of global integral values.The inclusion of the diurnal cycle of solar radiation may show a significant effect on the local contributions of energy cycle parameters.For example,the local contributions of baroclinic conversion C_(A_T)(conversion from zonal available potential energy A_(Z) to transient eddy available potential energy A_(TE)),baroclinic conversion C_(E_T)(conversion from transient eddy available potential energy A_(TE) to transient eddy kinetic energy K_(TE)),and stationary eddy kinetic energy K_(SE) are obviously improved.The simulation of unrealistic rising motion in the Antarctic region contributes significantly to the negative global integral values of conversion C_(Z) from zonal available potential energy to zonal kinetic energy in the models.Because the overestimation of dissipation of transient eddy kinetic energy K_(TE) results in a weaker transient eddy kinetic energy in the models,and the maximum of simulated stationary eddy kinetic energy K_(SE) is also underestimated,the nonlinear barotropic conversion C_(K_(TE)-K_(SE)) from K_(TE) to K_(SE) is thus not well represented in the models,which highlights the need for further improvement in the future.
【Fund】: 中国科学院创新团队国际合作伙伴计划“气候系统模式研发及应用研究”;; 国家自然科学基金资助项目40221503、40475027
【CateGory Index】: P435
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