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《Chinese Journal of Atmospheric Sciences》 2006-01
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The Comparative Analysis of the Changes of Extreme Temperature and Extreme Diurnal Temperature Range of Large Cities and Small Towns in Eastern China

HUA Li-Juan~(1,2),MA Zhu-Guo~(1),and ZENG Zhao-Mei~(1)1 START Regional Center for Temperate East Asia,Key Laboratory of Regional Climate-Environment Research for Temperate East Asia,Institute of Atmospheric Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 1000292 Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039  
According to the report of IPCC in 2001,the global averaged surface temperature has increased by 0.6±0.2 ℃ since the beginning of the last century.Global warming results from both human activities and natural climate change.The extreme temperature and extreme diurnal temperature range have changed obviously while the mean surface temperature keeps increasing. Human activities have the important influence on the changes of extreme temperature and extreme diurnal temperature range,especially in urban areas.The main purpose of this study is to analyze the differences of extreme temperature and extreme diurnal temperature range between large cities and small towns over eastern China.Based on China's fifth population survey(2000) data,large cities and small towns are classified.There are more than 500000 permanent residents at the selected large city stations,and there are less than 100000 at small town stations.Because most of these stations are located in the eastern areas of 100°E of China,our work focuses on the influence of urbanization on extreme temperature and extreme diurnal temperature range over eastern China.Sixty-one large cities stations and 169 small towns are selected in eastern China with the observations of daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1961 to 2000.Daily diurnal temperature range is the difference between daily maximum temperature and daily minimum temperature.The inhomogeneous data have been deleted due to relocation of stations before analyzing. Two kinds of methods are used in this study: one is absolute extremes and the other is relative extremes.For the first method,absolutely maximal and minimal extreme maximum temperatures are defined as the maximal and minimal values of the maximum temperature every year at every station,respectively.The minimum temperature and diurnal temperature range have the similar definitions.The data are averaged at large city and small town stations,respectively.For the other method,the days with the maximum(minimum) temperature above the 95th percentile of them on the same day from 1961 to 2000 are defined as warm days(nights),and below the 5th percentile on the same day are cool days(nights).The numbers of warm days,warm nights,cool days and cool nights are calculated at each station every year and these numbers are averaged at large city and small town stations,respectively.Relatively extreme diurnal temperature ranges have the similar definitions. The results show that the annual absolutely maximal and minimal maximum and minimum temperatures in large cities are higher than those in small towns.Annual absolutely maximal maximum temperatures of the large cities and small towns have increased obviously after the 1990s,and remarkable increasing trends of the annual absolutely(minimal) maximum temperatures are found at the two kinds of stations.In addition,the obvious increasing trends of both maximum and minimum of the annual absolutely extreme minimum temperatures are shown at large city and small town stations.During the analyzed period,the numbers of warm days and warm nights exhibit increasing trends in large cities and small towns,while the numbers of the cool days and cool nights display decreasing trend.The averaged numbers of warm days,warm nights,cool days and cool nights are higher in large cities than small towns from 1961 to 2000.By analyzing annual absolutely extreme diurnal temperature range,it is found that they are lower in large cities than those in small towns,and they all have decreased remarkably. Although it is difficult to ensure that the urbanization has no effect on the stations which have the population not exceeding 100000,it is feasible to discuss the warming effects by analyzing these stations with contrast to the large cities with over 500000 population.From above results,the urban warming phenomena are found in eastern China.
【Fund】: 中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目“中国西北西部气候和水分过程的变化特征及其相互联系的研究”(KZCX3-SW-229);; 国家自然科学基金资助项目40375028
【CateGory Index】: P463.3
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