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《Earth and Environment》 2008-01
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PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS IN SNOW AND ICE

LI Quan-lian, WU Xiao-bo(State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730070,China)  
Snow and ice are important environmental components of the ecosystem at temperate and polar latitudes. They affect energy balances and hydrologic cycles and can thus directly affect the behaviour of chemicals in the environment on the local, regional and global scales. Snow is an efficient scavenger of POPs from the atmosphere both by adsorption of gaseous and particle scavenging. This paper presents a review of the environmental chemical behavior in snow, discusses the chemical fate following snowfall. The post-depositional fate of POPs in aging snow packs is poorly understood, falling snow scavenges organic contaminants from the atmosphere, which are thus contained in snow packs accumulating on the ground, during snow pack aging and metamorphosis, a chemical can be transferred with melt water to the terrestrial or aquatic environment underlying the snow pack or it may volatilize back into the atmosphere. Furthermore, historical environmental records and analysis methods of POPs from ice and snow in the areas at polar and high altitudes are reviewed as well. Finally, from a consideration of the present state of knowledge, we suggest a number of priority areas for research: a lot of work should be done on POPs from ice and snow on the Tibetan Plateau, because the Tibet Plateau plays an important role in the global transport of POPs and it suffers heavy threat of pollutants; enough attention should be paid to photochemical reaction mechanism in snow and ice; pre-handling and analytical techniques need to be greatly improved. Measurements and models of the fate of POPs in aging snow packs, especially the determination of rates and proportions evaporated and leached in melt water should be conducted and established.
【Fund】: 中国科学院创新团队国际合作伙伴计划项目(CXTD-Z2005-2);; 国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2005CB422003);; 国家杰出青年科学基金项目(40525001);; 中国科学院百人计划项目(2004401);; 中国科学院优秀人才项目(2005406);; 国家自然科学基金项目(40771046)
【CateGory Index】: X502
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