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《地质学报(英文版)》 2016-02
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Tectonic Imprints of the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis on the Mesozoic Rocks Exposed in Munda, Mohmand Agency, Northwest Pakistan

Asghar ALI;Umer HABIB;Atta Ur REHMAN;Noor ZADA;Zain Ul;ABIDIN;Muhammad ISMAIL;Department of Geology, University of Peshawar;  
Two well-developed mesoscopic folds, D_2 and D_3, which postdate the middle amphibolite metamorphism, were recognized in the western hinterland zone of Pakistan. NW–SE trending D_2 folds developed during NE–SW horizontal bulk shortening followed by NE–SW trending D_3 folds, which developed during SE–NW shortening. Micro- to mesoscopically the NW–SE trending S2 crenulation cleavage, boudins and mineral stretching lineations are overprinted by D_3. The newly established NW–SE trending micro- to mesoscopic structures in Munda termed D_2, which postdated F_1/F_2, is synchronously developed with F3 structures in the western hinterland zone of Pakistan. We interpret that D_2 and D_3 folds are counterclockwise rotated in the tectonic event that has evolved the Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis after the main phase Indian plate and Kohistan Island Arc collision. Chlorite replacement by biotite in the main matrix crenulation cleavages indicates prograde metamorphism related with D_2. The inclusion of muscovite and biotite in garnet porphyroblasts and the presence of staurolite in these rocks indicate that the Barrovian metamorphic conditions predate D_2 and D_3. We interpret that garnet, staurolite and calcite porphyroblasts grew before D_2 because the well developed S2 crenulation cleavage wraps around these porphyroblasts.
【Fund】: We acknowledge financial support from the Department of Geology University of Peshawar and some logistical support and garnetiferous NZ samples from BAK Consulting Engineers
【CateGory Index】: P583
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