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《Arid Land Geography》 2011-01
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Low flow measurement and error analysis in hydrologic survey in Kumtag Desert

WANG Xue-Quan1,LU Qi1,YAN Ping2,E You-Hao2(1 Institute of Desertification Studies,Chinese Academy of Forestry,Beijing 100091,China;2 Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875,China)  
Low flow measurement plays a great role in background investigation in the Kumtag Desert environmental resources.The dry season flow in these smaller rivers is not only the main water resource for wildlife,but also for the focus area of plants distribution.In order to test the reliability and accuracy of a suitable discharge measuring strategy for those streams,experimental investigations have been carried out on the small river in and nearby Kumtag Desert.The flow measurements were conducted on 16 sections at 9 rivers in 2007-2009 using the different methods such as current-meter method,triangle weir and small buoy method,flow measurement error were analysied.The results showed as follows:(1) Most of the dry season runoff or spring in the Kumtag Desert rivers is less than 0.5 m3/s,with its irregular channel section it is difficult to measure the discharge by conventional current-meter method.Applicability of velocity measurements using a current meter appears rather hard in the small streams,like the steep ones,such as mountain streams or in general the ones where small water depths and velocities,approach the unreliability ranges of the method.These characteristics are common in a large part of the small rivers flowing across the Kumtag Desert.(2)The flow measurement error by triangle weir box comes mainly from the water gauge reading error.The calculation results show that the flow measurement random uncertainty is 0.86%,lower than the uncertainty specification required for the low flow measurement at first-class accuracy stations.The flow measurements error by small buoys can be divided into depth,width measurement error,buoy velocity error and coefficient.Under the same conditions 9 times independent observation were repeated using small buoys methods at Lapeiquan river,the discharge is(6.086±0.460)m3/h,including standard uncertainty for 0.460 m3/h,relative standard uncertainty for 7.56%,less than standard uncertainty set by the code for liquid flow measurement in open channels.(3)Measurement of discharge by triangle weir and small buoy are both easy to conduct and to obtain a good accuracy,they are both the appropriate hydrologic investigation methods in arid region.
【Fund】: 国家科技基础性工作专项“库姆塔格沙漠综合科学考察”(2006FY110800);; 国家“十一五”科技支撑计划课题(2006BAD26B10);; 中国林科院林业研究所重点项目(ZD200907)
【CateGory Index】: P332.4
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