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Cai Lixun;Yang Xianjie, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P. R. China  
An experimental investigation was carried out on the flow characteristic and hardening of steel 40 subjected to complex combined axial-torsional cyclic straining. For a specific cyclic strain path, the steel has mainly cyclic softening behavior when the strain amplitude is small. While with an increase of the effective strain amplitude, the softening becomes small, but there is the cyclic softening even though the steel is subjected to the cyclic loading by a square strain path. However, the steel has cyclic additional hardening by a nonproportional path, compared with the proportional cycling. Generally, the additional hardening is small and its historical effect is not obvious at small strain amplitude. The additional hardening is remarkable by a cross-triangular strain path of large strain amplitude. The memory of the history of nonproportional cyclic loading, the direction of plastic flow and the plastic modulus of the steel were also studied.
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