Full-Text Search:
Home|Journal Papers|About CNKI|User Service|FAQ|Contact Us|中文
《Research of Environmental Sciences》 2007-01
Add to Favorite Get Latest Update

Studies on Residues of Organochloride Pesticides POPs in the Soils in Beijing Area

SHI Shuang-xin,ZHOU Li,SHAO Ding-ding,HUANG Ye-ruSino-Japan Friendship Center for Environmental Protection,Beijing 100029,China  
115 soil samples were collected in Beijing area from May to July in 2004.The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) and the detectable rates and residual amounts of 8 kinds of organochloride pesticides POPs,including hexachlorobenzene(HCB),Chlordane,DDTs(DDT,DDE and DDD),Aldrin,Dieldrin,Endrin,heptachlor and Mirex,were analyzed using GC/MS.The results showed that HCB and DDT were detected widely in samples in the soils in Beijing area. Aldrin,Dieldrin,Endrin,Heptachlor and Mirex were less than the quantification limit.The total amount of pesticides POPs was 77.7 μg/kg.DDTs was the primary compound in soil samples,accounting for 98.9% of the pesticides POPs.The source of DDTs was garden soils in city parks.HCB was another kind of POPs which is detected widely in samples.However,the concentration of HCB was low.In addition,chlordane was detected partially,and the concentration was low too.These two pesticides POPs make little harm to soils in Beijing area.
【Fund】: 国家“十五”科技攻关计划项目(2003BA614A-09)
【CateGory Index】: X53
Download(CAJ format) Download(PDF format)
CAJViewer7.0 supports all the CNKI file formats; AdobeReader only supports the PDF format.
【References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 NIE Zhi-qiang et al(Environmental Protection Institute,Ministry of Agriculture,Tianjin 300191);Current Status of POPs Contamination in Soil Environment and the Research Progress on Its Treatment Technology[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-15
2 YAN Yan et al(School of Bioengineering,Dalian University of Technology,Dalian,Liaoning 116024);Aerobic Biodegradation of Chlordane in Liquid Culture by Enterobacter sp. LY402[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-23
3 LU Ji-long1,WANG Xu-hui1,HAO Li-bo1,ZHAO Yu-yan1,YU Xin-min2,LIU Zi-feng2,BAI Rong-jie21.College of GeoExploration Science and Technology,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China2.Jilin Geological Survey Institute,Changchun 130061,China;Residues Characteristics of Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane in Agricultural Soil in the Middle Jilin Province[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2008-05
4 YANG Dan,QI Shi-hua,WU Cheng-xi,ZHANG yuan,ZHANG kai,TIAN fang,GAO Yuan,XU feng(Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology of Ministry of Education,Wuhan 430074,China);Influence of Meteorological Factor on Atmospheric Deposition of Organochlorine Pesticides in Honghu[J];Geological Science and Technology Information;2010-01
5 WANG Guang1,LV Yong-long2,SHI Ya-juan2,LUO Wei2,WANG Tie-yu2,SUN Ya-mei3 (1. South China Institute of Environmental Sciences,MEP,Guangzhou 510655,China; 2. State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecoloby,Research Centre for Eco-environmental Science,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100085,China; 3. Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning,Beijing 100012,China);Characterization and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils from Beijing Southeast Chemical Industrial Zone[J];Environmental Science & Technology;2010-09
6 Liu Maosheng1,Ou Hui1,Cai Yuepeng2(1.Guangzhou Enviormental Monnitoring Center Guangzhou 510030;2.Chemistry and Environment Engineering Department,South China Normal University,Guangzhou 510006,China);Residues and Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Vegetable Soils in Guangzhou Area[J];Guangdong Chemical Industry;2011-04
7 QI Jun1,2,YANG Lin-sheng1,WANG Wu-yi1(1.Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101;2.Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039,China);Urbanization and Human Health in Beijing-Tianjin Region[J];Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment;2008-07
8 CUI Jian;WANG Xiao-guang;DU Ji-zhong;YANG Ze;YUE Ming-xin;LI Xiao;MA Hong-wei;Shenyang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources;;Residues and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in surface soil of Shenyang suburbs[J];Geology in China;2014-05
9 LU Bi-lin1,WU Ji-hong2(1.Department of Geochemistry,Yangtze University,Jingzhou 434023,Hubei,China; 2.Agricultural Technology Promotion Center of Jingmen City,Jingmen 448000,Hubei,China);Analysis on Pesticide Residue in the Soil of Vegetables Base in Jingzhou Suburb[J];Hubei Agricultural Sciences;2011-09
10 Fu Weidong1,Wang Yan2,Liu Yanjun2,Zhang Baohua2,(1.Liaocheng Environmental Monitoring Center,Liaocheng Shandong 252000;2 School of Environment and Planning,Liaocheng University,Liaocheng Shandong 252059);Investigation of Residues of Organochlorine Pesticides in the Surface Soils in Liaocheng of Shandong Province[J];Journal of Environmental Management College of China;2009-02
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 1 Hits
1 LI Dong-mei~(1,2),LI Jian-ke~(1*),SHI Zhi-cheng~3,Wang Hu~2 (1 College of Food Science,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an 710069,China; 2 Xi'an Agriculture Science Research Institute,Xi'an 710061,China; 3 College of Life Science,Northwest University,Xi'an 710069,China);Studies on Residues of Organochloride Pesticides POPs in the Soils and Tamato of Xi'an[A];[C];2008
【Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 6 Hits
1 HUANG Sheng-biao,WANG Zi-jian,KANG Yue-hui,MA Mei China);Vertical Distribution Characteristics of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Sedimentary Core from Guanting Reservoir[J];Research of Environmental Sciences;2004-06
2 YANG Jia-mo~1,WANG Yun~2,SU Qing-qing~1 (1.Wuhan Institute of Chemical Engineering, Wuhan430073, China;2.Shanghai Saishi Trading Limited Company, Shanghai200052, China);Investigation of Organochlorine Pesticides Residue in the Suspended Solid of Wuhan Section of the Yangtze River[J];Research of Environmental Sciences;2004-06
3 GONG Zhongming\+1, WANG Xuejun\+1, LI Bengang\+1, CAO Jun\+1, XU Fuliu\+1, CUI Yanhong\+1, ZHANG Wenju\+2, SHEN Weiran\+2, QIN Baoping\+2, SUN Ren\+2, TAO Shu\+1\ (1.Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, Peking University, Beijing\ 100871; 2.Environmental Protection Bureau of Tianjin, Tianjin\ 300191);The residues distribution of DDT and its metabolites in soils from Tianjin Region,China[J];Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae;2003-04
4 ;Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticid in Soil by Capillary GC[J];ENVIRONMENT AND EXPLOITATION;1998-03
5 An Qiong Dong Yuanhua Wang Hui Wang Xia Wang Meinong Guo Zongxiang (Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Nanjing 210008, China);ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN CULTIVATED SOILS,IN THE SOUTH OF JIANGSU,CHINA[J];Acta Pedologica Sinica;2004-03
6 Zhao Yuwan, Chen Kun, Ma Xinyuan, et al. Department of Epidemiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310031 P. R. China;A Study on the Residue of the Organochloride Pesticide in Soil and Rice[J];Zhejiang Journal of Preventive Medicine;2002-12
【Co-citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 GAO Yun et al (Research Center of Tobacco Science,University of Sciene &Technology of China,Hefei,Anhui 230052);Analysis of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soil by Accelerated Solvent Extraction /GC[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2006-08
2 Ding Wen-wen(Jiangsu Province Xuzhou Medical Vocational College,Nanjing University of Technology,Xuzhou,Jiangsu 221000);Research on the Organochlorine Pollutants Residue in Agricultural Soil in Weishan Lake Region[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-03
3 NIE Zhi-qiang et al(Environmental Protection Institute,Ministry of Agriculture,Tianjin 300191);Current Status of POPs Contamination in Soil Environment and the Research Progress on Its Treatment Technology[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-15
4 LI Hong-quan et al (School of Basic Medical Science,Hebei University,Baoding,Hebei 071000);Study on Isolation and Characterization of a DDT Degradation Bacterium Strain DH-7[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2009-13
5 XIA Li-ya et al (College of Supervision of Quality & Technology,Hebei University,Baoding,Hebei 071002);Analysis on the Relationship between Quality of Panjin Rice and Environment of Producing Area[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2009-31
6 HU Chun-hua et al(Key Lab of Lake Ecology and Bio-resource Utilization of Poyang Lake,Ministry of Education,Nanchang University,Nanchang,Jiangxi 330029);Residual Characteristic and Eco-risk Assessment of DDT in Differently Using Types Soil in Jiangxi Province[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-05
7 DUAN Yong-lan et al (Henan Industry and Trade Vocational College,Zhengzhou,Henan 450053);Research and Prospect of Microbial Pesticide in China[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-08
8 WANG Xiao-xin et al (Guangxi Agricultural and Vocational Technical College,Nanning,Guangxi 530007);Study on the Remediation of Pesticide-contaminated Soil by Bacteria[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-32
9 WANG Shu-juan1,LIU Cao2,PU Jun-wen1(1 School of Material Science and Technology,Beijing Forestry University,Beijing 100083,China;2 Beijing Hydraulic Institute,Beijing 100044,China);Study on constructed wetland efficiency for removing persistent organic pollutants[J];Journal of Safety and Environment;2006-05
10 Chen Xianghong,Hu Diqin,Liao Yijun,Zhu Daming,Chen Yang,Zhou Zhihong,Li Jinlin(Guangzhou Environmental Monitoring Center,Guangzhou 510030,China);Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Cultivated Soils in Guangzhou Area[J];Environmental Science and Management;2009-06
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 5 Hits
1 LI Dong-mei~(1,2),LI Jian-ke~(1*),SHI Zhi-cheng~3,Wang Hu~2 (1 College of Food Science,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi'an 710069,China; 2 Xi'an Agriculture Science Research Institute,Xi'an 710061,China; 3 College of Life Science,Northwest University,Xi'an 710069,China);Studies on Residues of Organochloride Pesticides POPs in the Soils and Tamato of Xi'an[A];[C];2008
2 XING Lu, SHI Lei, LOU Yinghua, SHI Lei ( State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control & Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University; Center for Environmental Management and Policy, Nanjing University & Jiangsu EPD, Nanjing, 210093;Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266071);Residues Distribution of DDTs from Aerosol in Qingdao Region[A];[C];2006
3 ;Study on Residues of Persistent Organochloride Pesticides in Agricultural Soils of Ningbo[A];[C];2010
4 ZHANG Yu-liang1 , LU Wen-long2 , LI Yan1 (1.Tianjin Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Tianjin 300192,China;2.Tianjin Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Tianjin 300192,China);Present States of Tianjin Vegetable Field Pollution and Ameliorative Control Technology[A];[C];2007
5 CHEN Jing-tao 1 ,TIAN An-xiang 2 ,LI Ke-bin 3 , WANG Jian-jun 1 (1.Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Institute of Education, Xi’an 710061, China; 2.School of Science; Xi'an Univ. of Arch.& Tech,Xi'an 710055; China ;3.Department of Chemistry, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, China);Advance on Studying the Level and Distribution of Chlorined-organic Residues in China[A];[C];2007
【Co-references】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 SHI Shuang-xin,HUANG Ye-ru(Sino-Japan Friendship Center for Environmental Protection,Beijing 100029,China);Research Progress of the Organochloride Pesticides in the Water Environment of China[J];Carcinogenesis,Teratogenesis & Mutagenesis;2007-03
2 ZHANG Jin1,YAN Shu-jun2(1.Department of Environmental Engineering,Anhui University of architecture,Hefei 230022,China;2 Anhui Honglu Steel Construction(Group) Co.,Ltd.,Hefei 231131,China);Development of effect of factors on the leaching and movement of pesticides in soil[J];Journal of Anhui Institute of Architecture & Industry(Natural Science);2008-04
3 Liu Xiao et al.(Yulin environmental monitoring station,Shanxi Yulin 719000);Analyzis Present Situation and Souce of Persistent Organic Pollutant[J];Anhui Agricultural Science Bulletin;2008-21
4 LI Gong-zhen et al (College of Environment and Surveying and Mapping,China University of Mining & Technology,Xuzhou,Jiangsu 221008);Studies on the Relations between Morphological Distribution of Heavy Metals and Organic Carbon in Bottom Sediment in Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal(Xuzhou Section)[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-13
5 DING Chun et al(Anhui Institute of Enviromental Science,Hefei,Anhui 230061);Evaluation of Water Quality Evaluation in the South Feihe River Based on Principal Component Analysis[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2007-35
6 ZHAO Si-qi et al (College of Life Science and Biopharmaceutics,Shenyang Pharmaceutical University,Shenyang,Liaoning 110016);On the Detection Technologies of Pesticide Residues[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-10
7 LIN Yu-chan et al(Agricultural Products Quality & Safety Supervision & Testing Center of Huizhou in Guangdong Province,Huizhou,Guangdong 516008);Analysis on Residual Quantity of Organic Phosphorus and Amino-carbamate Pesticide in Vegetables[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2008-14
8 ZHANG Chun-ling(Jilin Vocational and Technical College of Agricultural Engineering,Gongzhuling,Jilin 136100);Study on Breeding of Single Strain Degrading Bacteria on Hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) under Low Temperature[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2009-10
9 GE Dongmei et al (College of Research and Environment,China Mine-industry University,Xuzhou,Jiangsu 221008);Research on the Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticide in the Weishan Lake and Its Risk Evaluation[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-22
10 LUO Qing et al (Key Laboratory for Ecological Remedy of Regional Polluted Environment,Ministry of Education,Shenyang University,Shenyang,Liaoning 110044);Ultrasonic Extraction-GC/MS Simultaneous Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Agricultural Soil[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-22
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 1 Hits
1 Ma Xing-Hua Li Han-Dong Han Run-Ping Zhang Zong-Yang ( Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences,Beijing 100012,China);The Development of Analysis Methods on Organic Amines[A];[C];2008
【Secondary References】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 LI Hong-quan et al (School of Basic Medical Science,Hebei University,Baoding,Hebei 071000);Study on Isolation and Characterization of a DDT Degradation Bacterium Strain DH-7[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2009-13
2 LUO Qing et al (Key Laboratory for Ecological Remedy of Regional Polluted Environment,Ministry of Education,Shenyang University,Shenyang,Liaoning 110044);Ultrasonic Extraction-GC/MS Simultaneous Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Residues in Agricultural Soil[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-22
3 WANG Xiao-xin et al (Guangxi Agricultural and Vocational Technical College,Nanning,Guangxi 530007);Study on the Remediation of Pesticide-contaminated Soil by Bacteria[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2010-32
4 FU Qiang et al (Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Chengdu,Sichuan 611730);Study on Residuals of Organochlorine Pesticide in Soil Planted RHIZOMA COPTIS from Genuine Producing Areas[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2011-02
5 YAO Zheng-yan et al(Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering,Hefei University,Hefei,Anhui 230022);The Survey of Dieldrin Residues from Wheat in China[J];Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences;2011-12
6 ZHANG Wen-jing1,2(1 School of Safety and Environmental Engineering,Capital University of Economics and Business,Beijing 100070,China;2 State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology,Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100085,China);DDT release in the dicofol production process[J];Journal of Safety and Environment;2012-02
7 LI Teng1,2,LI Han-dong2,WANG Ping1,HE Jie2,LIU Feng2,LI Ji2(1 Research Center of Environmental Science and Engineering,Central South University of Forestry and Technology,Changsha 410004,China;2 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences,Beijing 100012,China);Application of two detection methods for rapid GC measurement of secondary amines in drinking water[J];Journal of Safety and Environment;2012-03
8 Yu Guanghui,Tao Jianjun,Li Bochao(The School of Architecture and Urban Planning of Hunan Science and Technology University,Xiangtan 411201,China);The Study on Safety of Environmental Pollution in the Xiangjiang River Valley of Hunan Province[J];Environmental Science and Management;2010-05
9 CHEN Shi-jun,HUANG Lie-qin,ZHU Xian-ling,FENG Xiu-zhen,MEI Yun-qun(Department of Life Sciences,Qiannan National Normal College,Duyun,Guizhou 558000);Responses of Chrysanthemum coronarium Seedling under Pyrene Stress[J];Northern Horticulture;2010-11
10 LU Ji-long1,WANG Xu-hui1,HAO Li-bo1,ZHAO Yu-yan1,YU Xin-min2,LIU Zi-feng2,BAI Rong-jie21.College of GeoExploration Science and Technology,Jilin University,Changchun 130026,China2.Jilin Geological Survey Institute,Changchun 130061,China;Residues Characteristics of Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane in Agricultural Soil in the Middle Jilin Province[J];Journal of Jilin University(Earth Science Edition);2008-05
China Proceedings of conference Full-text Database 4 Hits
1 Zheng Li1, Yongfei Zhang2, Shan Fu2 1Agricultural University of Hebei,Baoding,071000 2Research Center for Eco-Envionmental Science,Chinese Academy of Science,Beijing,100085;Residues and Potential Risks of Hexachlorocyclohexanes,HCHs,in Sediments of The five Rivers in China[A];[C];2012
2 (School of Environment,Beijing Normal University,Beijing,100875);The sequestration of HCHs and DDTs in sediment with activated carbon[A];[C];2010
3 LI Xin-rong,ZHAO Tong-ke~+,LI Peng,LI Shun-jiang,ZHANG Cheng-jun (Institute of Plant Nutrition and Natural Resources,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences,Beijing,100097,China);Residues of organochlorine pesticides(OCPs) in surface soils of vegetable plots in Miyun county,Beijing[A];[C];2012
4 HUANG Cheng,GUO Mei,ZHANG Huai-yu,ZHOU Ri-dong (Zhongshan Center for Disease Control and Prevention,Zhongshan,528403);Determination of Eight Pyrethroid pesticide residues in Tea by QuEChERS-Gas Chromatography[A];[C];2011
【Secondary Citations】
Chinese Journal Full-text Database 10 Hits
1 Sun Weijiang 1 Chai Jianming 2 Huan Bin 1 ( 1Department of Horticulture, FAU, Fuzhou 350002; 2Tea Industry Commission of Anxi County, Anxi 362400);The analysis of the pesticide residue in tea garden soil and tea leaves[J];JOURNAL OF FUJIAN AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY;1997-01
2 Wu Liji;Fu Yinsheng;Zhang Fuguo (Environmental Science Institute of Hulubuir League Inner Mongolia);THE DETERMINED AND STUDIED THE ORGANIC CHLORID PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN THE FINE HERBAGE AND SOIL OF HULUNBUIE GRASS LAND[J];ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING;1995-01
3 Ma Mei Wang Zijian(Research Center for Eco-Environmental Siences, Chinese Academy of Sciences,State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Beijing, 100085)Anders S■dergren(Department of Ecology, Lund University, Lund S22362, Sweden);CONTAMINATION OF PCBs AND ORGANOCHLORINATEDPESTICEDES IN THE SEDIMENT SAMPLES OF GUANTINGRESERVOIR AND YONGDING RIVER[J];Environmental Chemistry;2001-03
4 Kang Yuehui 1,Sheng Guoying 1,Fu Jiamo 1,Mai Bixian 2,Zhang Gan 2(1.State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry,Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guangzhou 510640, China E mail:kangyuehui@263.net; 2.Guangdong Key Laboratory of E;Vertical Distribution Characteristics of Organochlorinated Pesticides in Sediment Core from Macao Estuary,Pearl River Delta[J];Chinese Journal of Enviromental Science;2001-01
5 XU Shifen 1 ,JIANG Xin 2 ,FENG Jianfang 1 ,DONG Yuying 1 ,SUN Cheng 1 ,WANG Liansheng 1 \ (1. Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, N;Gas chromatographic method for the determination of organochlorine pesticides insuspended solids and sediments of the Yangtze River[J];ACTA SCIENTIAE CIRCUMSTANTIAE;2000-04
6 . Liu Shabin ct al. (Inner Mongolia Environmental Protection Monitoring Central Station):;INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH ON ORGANOCHLORINE (666.DDT) INSECTICIDE POLLUTION STATE IN VEGETABLES AND SOIL NEAR HUHHAT.[J];Rural Eco-environment;1991-04
7 .Zhong Xia et al(Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Central Station.SHENYANG 110015);The Pesticide Residues in Farmland Soils of Shenyang[J];RURAL ECO-ENVIRONMENT;1996-04
8 LI Guo_xue1 and SUN Ying2(1.College of Resources and Environment Sciences, CAU, Beijing, 100094;2. College of Basic Sciences and Technology, CAU);Degradation of Organochlorine Insecticides HCH and DDT During Thermophilic Composting Process[J];AGRO-ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION;2000-03
9 BAI Qing yun(Agro-Environment Protection Institute, Tianjin 300191 China);Food Safety and Setting up of Maximum Residue Limits of Pollutants in Foods[J];AGRO-ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION;2000-04
10 Wang Liqing ;Ma Zengtian(Haihe Department of Water Resources Protection,Tianjing 300170);Water Pollution in Guanting Water System and Its Control[J];WATER RESOURCES PROTECTION;1999-01
©2006 Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co., Ltd.(Beijing)(TTKN) All rights reserved