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《Research of Environmental Sciences》 2016-06
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Pollution Status and Environmental Risks of Illicit Drugs in the Urban Rivers of Beijing

ZHANG Yan;ZHANG Tingting;GUO Changsheng;HUA Zhendong;ZHANG Yuan;XU Jian;State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences;National Narcotics Laboratory,Drug Intelligence and Forensic Center of the Ministry of Public Security P. R. C.;  
In this study,an analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of five illicit drugs,i. e. amphetamine( AMP),methamphetamine( METH),ketamine( KET),ephedrine( EPH) and hydroxylimine( HA) in water samples. The water was extracted by solid-phase extraction( SPE),and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry( LCMS/MS). The method was evaluated by testing the following variables: different types of extraction cartridges( Oasis HLB,Oasis MCX,Oasis Wax and Oasis PRi ME HLB),extraction solvents,solvent volumes,solvent p H values and different water matrices. The highest recoveries( 81. 8%-91. 1%),as well as the simplest protocol,were obtained for Oasis MCX cartridges( 60 mg,3 m L) using 4 m L of5% ammonia solution in methane at about p H 7 as the eluting solution. The recoveries of the five illicit drugs in surface water were more than 75. 5%,and the relative standard deviations( RSDs) were less than 10. 0%. The limits of detection were between 0. 30-0. 80ng/L,and the limits of quantification were between 1. 00-2. 68ng/L. The method was successfully employed on surface water samples collected from urban rivers in Beijing, China, and resulted in the detection of all five drugs,with concentrations ranging from 1. 00 to 99. 51 ng/L. EPH( average value was 22. 79ng/L) was detected in all sampling sites and the concentrations were high. Although the concentrations of AMP were relatively low,it presented high frequencies( 97. 06%). The concentrations of METH were high,and reached up to 99. 51 ng/L in Ba River. The established method is simple and robust,and capable of analysis of the emerging illicit drugs in the water environment. Risk assessment showed that the five illicit drugs are not likely to exert biological effects on aquatic ecosystems at current levels in the surface water of Beijing. However,the potential adverse effects of illicit drugs on the ecosystem functioning and human health should not be neglected.
【Fund】: 环境基准与风险评估国家重点实验室自由探索项目
【CateGory Index】: X522;X824
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