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《高功率激光科学与工程(英文版)》 2016-02
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How the optical timing system,the longitudinal diagnostics and the associated feedback systems provide femtosecond stable operation at the FERMI free electron laser

Mario Ferianis;Enrico Allaria;Eugenio Ferrari;Giulio Gaio;Giuseppe Penco;Fabio Rossi;Marco Veronese;Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A.;  
FERMI, the seeded free electron laser(FEL) in operation in Italy, is providing the User Community with unique fully coherent radiation, in the wavelength range 100–4 nm. FERMI is the first FEL fully synchronized by means of optical fibers. The optical timing system ensures an ultra-stable phase reference to its distributed clients. Several femtosecond longitudinal diagnostics verify the achieved performance; the bunch length monitor(BLM) and the bunch arrival monitor(BAM) will be presented in this paper. Feedback systems play a crucial role to guarantee the needed longterm electron beam stability. A real-time infrastructure allows shot-to-shot communication between front-end computers and the servers. Orbit feedbacks are useful in machine tuning, whereas longitudinal feedbacks control electron energy,compression and arrival time. A flexible software framework allows a rapid implementation of heterogeneous multiinput–multi-output(MIMO) longitudinal loops simply by selecting the appropriate sensors and actuators.
【Fund】: the Italian Minister of University and Research(MIUR);; the Regione Autonoma Friuli Venezia Giulia;; the European Investment Bank(EIB);; the European Research Council(ERC);; the European Commission(EC)
【CateGory Index】: TN248.6
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