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Gao Aiguo(Institute of Oceanology,Academia Sinica,Qingdao,266071,China)  
It is great event in the oceanology this century that hydrothermal activities andhydatogeneses are discovered on seabed.We have now had much knowkdge of hy-drothermal activities under different geologic settings,and mastered some symbols andmeans to find them after more than 30 years'study.At least there are a hundred hy-drothermal activity areas on seabeds of the world,in which many ore-grade depositsexsit.In-situ observation and laboratory analysis and simulation have provided more op-portunities for us to understand material source of hydrothermal activities,condition ofmineral formation and exchanges of materials on seabed interfaces. 16 main events andthe present situation on the studies of hydrothermal activities have been introduced inthis paper.Conclusion is that sources of material to deposits are abundant because thematerial sources of hydrothermal deposits on seabeds are dominantly halogen-rich sea-water which makes up most of the hydrothermal solution,trace element-rich seafloorsediments and magmatic activities.It is possible that the hydrothermal deposits becomean important kind of mineral resources because they are easy to be found, mined andsmelted compared with ferromanganese crusts.To find more hydrothermal deposits onseabed,studies on magmatism,tectonism,water depth and other conditions which con- trol the hydrothermal activities must be strengthened.
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