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DEM speedup: Stiffness effects on behavior of bulk material

Stef Lommen;Dingena Schott;Gabriel Lodewijks;Department of Maritime and Transport Technology, Delft University of Technology;  
A number of techniques exist for minimizing the computational cost of discrete element simulations(DEMs). One such method is a reduction of particle stiffness, which allows for bigger time steps and therefore fewer iterations in a simulation. However, the limits and drawbacks of this approach are still unclear, and may lead to invalid results. This paper investigates the effect of a stiffness reduction on bulk behavior by examining three case studies. Two cases demonstrate that particle stiffness can be reduced without affecting the bulk material behavior, whereas the third test shows that a stiffness reduction influences the bulk behavior.
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