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Diagnosis and management of vascular diseases

FAN Xin-dong, ZHENG Lian-zhou. Department of Radiology, the Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine , Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200011, China  
Vascular disorders mainly include hemangiomas and vascular malformations, and constitute some of the most difficult diagnostic and therapeutic enigmas that can be encountered in the clinical practice. The clinical presentations are extremely variable and can range from an asymptomatic birthmark to life-threatening congestive heart failure. Attributing any of these extremely varied symptoms that a patient may present with to a vascular malformation may be a challenge to the most experienced clinician. This problem is compounded by the extreme rarity of these vascular lesions. If a clinician meets such a patient once every few years, it will be extremely difficult for the physicians to gain a steep learning curve. In such circumstances, it is difficult to formulate a standard of diagnosis and treatment for these vascular disorders. This paper aims to make a comprehensive and detailed description of the classification and diagnosis of the vascular disorders, the common used embolization agents, the concepts of interventional diagnosis and management and the therapies of various hemangiomas and vascular malformations. (J Intervent Radiol, 2011, 20: 589-597)
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