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PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONDITIONS FOR THE FORMATION OF TELLURIDES RICH GOLD DEPOSITS AS EXEMPLIFIED BY THE SHUIQUANGOU GOLD OREFIELD

Zhang Zhaochong and Li Zhaonai (Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences,Beijing 100037)  
With the Shuiquangou gold orefield as the example, the authors have studied the physi cochemical conditions for the formation of tellurides rich gold deposite. Located on the southern side of the Shangyi Chongli Chicheng deep fault (the boundary between Inner Mongolia geoaxis and Yanshan subsidence zone) in central northern margin of the North China platform, the Shuaquangou gold orefield is intimately related to Shuiquangou slightly alkaline complex in time and space. With the exception of the Jinjiazhuang gold deposit, all the gold deposits in the orefield are tellurides rich type ones characterized commonly by high gold fineness, low sulfide content, {100} crystal form for pyrite, dominant Cl - and low concentration of SO 2- 4 in ore fluids, with the first feature indicating high Te 2 fugacity and the last three suggesting low S 2 fugacity. So far as physicochemical conditions are concerned, thermodynamic analysis shows that low pH values are favorable for the mobilization and migration of Te, whereas low temperature, high Te fugacity and high f Te 2 / f S 2 ratios are favorable for the precipitation of tellurides. Based on these understanding combined with regional distribution of tellurides rich gold deposits and geochemical background of Te, the authors have advanced three prerequisites for the formation of tellurides rich gold deposits and also pointed out that between alkaline rocks and tellurides rich gold deposits there exists indirect organic connection rather than the simple direct magmatic differentiation and evolution relationship.
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