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《Acta Mineralogica Sinica》 1985-03
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Ma Yijie (Institute of Soil Science, Academia Sinica,Nanjing)  
The stability of montmorillonlte colloid dispersion has been studied by measuring the viscosity and Zeta-potential of the colloid dispersions. Results show that they are higher for Na-montmorillonite than for Ca-montmorillonite, suggestlng that the former is expected to show a greater tendency of dispersion. In mixed Na/Ca-montmorillonite the replacement of 10% absorbed Ca~(2+) by Na~+ will increase the viscosity and Zeta-potential. When the exchangeable sodium ion of montmorillonite colloids reaches a value of about 50—60% of ECP the viscosity and Zeta-potential will be close to those of pure Na-collolds,which means the double layer thickness of the colloids approximates that of pure Na-colloids. It has also been shown that the viscosity and Zeta-potential of montmorillonite colloid dispersion are closely related to the kind of exchangeable cations. In montmorillonite colloids they increase with increasing concentration of electralytes (NaCl, Na_2CO_3 and Na_2C_2O_4) in the dispersion. Also, they are higher in Na_2CO_3 or Na_2C_2O_4 solutions than in NaCl, suggesting that the colloid dispersion stabilized by Na_2CO_3 and Na_2C_2O_4 is more stable than that stabilized by NaCl.
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