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《Acta Mineralogica Sinica》 1985-03
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THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND SODIUM IONS ON THE STABILITY OF MONTMORILLONITE COLLOIDS

Ma Yijie (Institute of Soil Science, Academia Sinica,Nanjing)  
The stability of montmorillonlte colloid dispersion has been studied by measuring the viscosity and Zeta-potential of the colloid dispersions. Results show that they are higher for Na-montmorillonite than for Ca-montmorillonite, suggestlng that the former is expected to show a greater tendency of dispersion. In mixed Na/Ca-montmorillonite the replacement of 10% absorbed Ca~(2+) by Na~+ will increase the viscosity and Zeta-potential. When the exchangeable sodium ion of montmorillonite colloids reaches a value of about 50—60% of ECP the viscosity and Zeta-potential will be close to those of pure Na-collolds,which means the double layer thickness of the colloids approximates that of pure Na-colloids. It has also been shown that the viscosity and Zeta-potential of montmorillonite colloid dispersion are closely related to the kind of exchangeable cations. In montmorillonite colloids they increase with increasing concentration of electralytes (NaCl, Na_2CO_3 and Na_2C_2O_4) in the dispersion. Also, they are higher in Na_2CO_3 or Na_2C_2O_4 solutions than in NaCl, suggesting that the colloid dispersion stabilized by Na_2CO_3 and Na_2C_2O_4 is more stable than that stabilized by NaCl.
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