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《Chinese Science Bulletin》 2018-30
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The equilibration time scales of the quantum lattice model

Zhiqiang Huang;Qingyu Cai;State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonances and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences;University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences;  
Finding the equilibration time scale is an important open question in studying the equilibration of quantum systems.There are many kinds of systems that are unable to achieve equilibration, such as Anderson insulator, many-body localization systems and some integrable systems. For those systems that can reach equilibration, it was proved that there exists a general equilibration time scale. But these upper bounds are unrealistically long, and the lower bounds are also unrealistically short. How to get an accurate and general equilibration time scale is still unclear. In this paper, we study local equilibration time scales in quantum lattice systems. With the relation between equilibration and entanglement entropy, we define a new criterion for equilibration. This criterion is based on Rényi entropy,which is simpler for calculation. Moreover, the production of Rényi entropy is highly dependent on the spreading of information, and hence the tools developed in quantum information theory can help a lot. For the upper bound of equilibration time, we use the normal criterion of the time average ofthe fluctuation of the observation. This equilibration criterion is assessed with concrete observable operator, hence it is more accurate than the criterion of Rényi entropy. But this criterion is more complicated for calculation. With an appropriate assumption about the initial state, we present a new upper bound of equilibration time. Since the results are not constrained by the Hamiltonian of the system, this bound can be applied to various situations. If we are concerned with the local equilibration, we can limit the observation to a small region. If the whole system is big enough, the local observation would always find that the rest part is staying at the canonical ensemble, so that the local equilibration time will not increase with the size of whole system. When the local region is small enough, the upper bound of equilibration time can be much shorter. The local Rényi entropy has close relation to the propagation of information. The limitation of the speed of information propagation in a quantum lattice system can be given by the Lieb-Robinson bound, with which we evaluate the production rate of local 2-Rényi entropy. With these, we give a new lower bound of equilibration time for systems whose interactions are respectively short-range, exponentially-decaying and long-range. In earlier works, the lower bound of equilibration time is equal to the Lieb-Robinson time of the local system. In our rigorous proof, however, the lower bound is related to the strength of hopping, which also decides the Lieb-Robinson velocity. This means the equilibration time is related to the Lieb-Robinson time indeed. But the strictly equal relation may not hold. These new bounds are important to understanding the process of quantum equilibration.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金(11725524)资助
【CateGory Index】: O414.2
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