Preparation technology and industrialization status of nanocellulose
WU Qinglin;MEI Changtong;HAN Jingquan;YUE Yiying;XU Xinwu;School of Renewable Natural Resources,Louisiana State University;College of Material Science and Engineering,Nanjing Forestry University;College of Biology and Environment,Nanjing Forestry University;
During the past decade,nanocellulose has attracted a considerable attention because of its unique properties and growing interests in the bioconversion of renewable lignocellulosic biomass. Substantial academic and industrial interests have been directed toward potential applications of nanocellulose for various fields including high performance composites,electronics,catalysis,biomedical materials and energy. Nanocellulose will have to compete with petrochemical products from the industry with nearly a century of development experience. Partnerships among forest products,construction,petrochemical and manufacturing industries are the key to introduce green nanocellulose to a large consumer market with competitive cost and performance for its two main product lines: cellulose nanofiber( CNF)and cellulose nanocrystal( CNC). Currently,the CNF extraction is mainly completed by mechanical fibrillation to separate and reduce the size of the CNFs after pretreating cellulose fibers by using chemicals and enzyme. The CNC extraction is carried out by using mineral acids,organic acids,oxidation,enzyme,ionic liquids,deep eutectic solvents( DES),and supercritical water with purified cellulose. Future market expansion for both CNFs and CNCs will hinge on the development of newsolvent systems for pretreating lignocellulosic fibers for more efficient nanocellulose production( e.g.,DES and solid organic acids); large volume applications for the related products to help lower overall product costs( e.g.,drilling fluids,cement composites and modified plastics),international standards for cellulose nanomaterials to help multiple industrial sectors for developing and using the materials,and more eco-toxicological understanding and regulations for using the nanomaterial in various applications.