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THE CREEPING MECHANISM OF THE NON-SMOOTH WAVY SURFACE OF EARTHWORM BODY

SHI Weiping REN Luquan YAN Yuying (College of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China) (Terrain-Machine Bionics Engineering Lab, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China) (The University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK)  
It is the result of natural evolution that an earthworm with a multi-sectional non-smooth wavy surface can perfectly adapt its living environment. An earthworm moving in soil needs less longitudinal muscle contract force and less energy than those required to move a similar sized cylindrical body. The computational analysis shows that such an earthworm body with the wavy surface can reduce its muscle contract force by 1.12%, and a similar amount of energy as well.
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