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ON THE FLORISTICS OF ARTEMISIA L.IN THE WORLD

Ling Yeou - ruenn(South China Institute of Botanyg Academia Sinica.Guangzhou 510650)  
The paper presents summarily: 1. On the phylogeny of Artemisia L. and its species--generic geography in theworld.Author divided the genus into:Subgen. a. Artemisia. incl, Sect. 1). AbSintkiumDC., Sect. 2). Abrotanum Bess., Sect. 3). Artemisia, Sect. 4). Viscidipubes Y.R. Ling and Sect. 5). Albibractea Y. R. Ling; Subgen. b. Dracuneulus (Bess.)Peterm., incl. Sect. 6). Dracunculus Y. R. Ling, Sect. 7). Intilobus Y. R. Lingand Sect. 8. Turaniphytum (Pci jab.) Y. R. Ling, and Subgen. c. Artanacctum(Rzazad.) Y. R. Ling L. Jiang, incl. Sect. 9. Artanacetum (Rzazad. ) Pci jab.in the world., and author also discussed, in the genus Sect. Asbinthium DC. isthe most primitive one, in which the ancestor should be derived from pro--Artemisia. i. e. Matricaria--form species, in Trib. Anthcmideae from speciationcentre of N. Asia in Upper Oligocene or Lowers Eocene of Tertiary Era. Nowmost species of the section distribute mainly in subholarctic and temperate areas inN. Hemisphere. Sect. Abrotanum Bess. is more primitive, but also active one,from that ancestor many ancestors of other sections of the genus were derived.Now most species of it are mainly in temperate and subtropical areas, and a fewto N. subholartic or tropical area or even to S. Hemisphere. Sect. Artemisia is adeveloped section with the most amounts of species and world--wide distributionof the genus. Both Sect. Viscidipubcs Y. R. Ling and Sect. Albibractea Y. R.Ling are more specialized and more advanced sections in Asia. But most species ofthe former distribute mainly in Hengduang--Himalayan Mis. of China. only a fewspecies extendly distribute in E. and S. Asia, and the latter is the distribution atlower altitudes in S. and S. --E. Asia. Sect. Dracunculus Bess., Sect. LatilobusY. R. Ling and Sect. Turaniphytlim (Pci jab.) Y. R. Ling are much moreadvanced. But Sect. Dracunculus Bess. is distributed in droughty or semidroughtyareas Df N. hemisphere and N. Africa. Sect. Turaniphytum (Pci jab.) Y. R. Lingis only in C. W. Asia. and Sect. Latilobus Y. R. Ling is in temperate andsubtropical, but humid areas in N. hemisphere. Besides, the species of Sect.Artanacctum (Rzazad.) Pcljak. distribute in N. -E. Asia, or discontinuouslydistribute in N. -E. Asia and N. -W. W. of N. America.The opinions are based on the researches of Species--generic Morphology,Geography, Palaeontology and also supplemented by the Cladistic Analysis and theChemotaxonomy on the constituents from essential oils of the genus. In addition,those also get support from the researches of chromosomes and pollen grains.2. On. the historic and floristic geographies of Art6misia L. in the world.Author provided that after the ancestor of the genus was derived in N. Asia,it got a good development in Oligocene or Lower Tertiary and Quaternary Eras,and the present geographical distribution of the primitive species of the genus wasaccompanied by the speices migration during the ErAs. especially by the advancingPolar Ice age cap. At that time.the ancestral and primitive species of the genusimmigrated, perhaps, from the speciation centre along the following three importantroutes to everywhere. The lst one is the western route, where the species migratedfrom speciation centre to Europe and gradually trended towards E. of N.America but a part of the species is via S. Europe to N. N. --W. Africa, asin Artemisia absinthium L. and A. biennis Willd. The 2nd is the eastern route, in itthe ancestral and primitive species migrated throughout Siberia, N. --E. Asia andentered W. of N. America, as in A. frigida Willd. and A. campestris L. etc. InIce Age some of the species also eXtended towards Central or even to S.America, as in A. douglasiana Bess. The southern route is the 3rd one, in whichthe species were spreaded to Central and Eastern Asia first, later towards S. andS. -E. Asia. In the southern migration it have made important, so--called 'threeoblique mass distributional zones' in China, except a few wide--distributionalspecies. The lst zone is located at the west area of the line from W. HsinganMis. running obliquely th
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