Bumblebee Pathogens and Internal Enemies
LI Ji-lian,WU Jie, PENG Wen-jun,AN Jian-dong, GUO Zhan-bao,Tong Yue-min(Institute of Apicultural Research CAAS, Beijing 100093)
Extensive commercial rearing of bumblebee colonines and output or input among mang countries in the world allow pathogen or parasite outbreaks. So far,The partial accounts of bumblebee pathogens(fungi, protozoa, nematodes)-become dated as more protozoa, fungi and viruses are isolated from bumblebees, and the impact of internal enemies of bumblebees on their populations become better known. This article summarizes the records, distribution, incidence, impact and symptoms of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, mites, conopids found in bumblebees.