From the French Revolution to the Eve of World War Ⅰ
SHI Yinhong (Academy of International Relations, Nanjing 210039)
The scale of war and war technology were largely in stagnation in the 200 years be- fore the mid-19th century. The important exceptions were the French Revolution and Napoleonic Ware, where nationalism, mass politics and modem ideology resulted in a sharp increase in the number of soldiers and wartime economic resources. They also molded total war aims, and drastical- ly expanded the scale of war. In war technology, the industrial revolution unfolded in both Europe and America ushered in a new epoch of industrialized weapon technology and military transportation, while the American Civil War and the French-Prussian War exhibited the revolutionary changes of war. Innovations in weapon technology, a major factor, contributed to the anus arms among the great powers especially the naval race between Britain and Germany,critical to what eventually led to the First World War. With the renovations in the scale of war and war technology, total war characteris- tic of the age of nationalism and industrialization emerged. After its rehearsal in the 19th century,it became the predominant factor for world politics in the 20th century.
【CateGory Index】： E19