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EFFECTS OF OROGRAPHY AND AIR FLOW IN EKMAN BOUNDARY LAYER

Wu Rongsheng Department of Atmospheric Sciences,Nanjing University,Nanjing  
It is convenient to use σ-coordinates to discuss the dynamic effect of orography and the flow in Ekman boundary layer.In this paper,the theory of mixing length is generalized to the σ-coordinate system. Then the governing equations,describing the motion in the boundary layer over the mountain regions are derived.The features of flow in the boundary layer,especially the effects of Ekman pumping,are discussed in details.It is pointed out that there are three factors affecting the vertical motion at the top of the boun- dary layer:(1)vorticity distribution in the boundary layer,which is directly related to the divergence and convergence of air flow caused by friction,(2)the upslope or downslope motion of flow over the mountain slopes,and(3)the mutual effect of orography and friction induced by the ageostrophic component climbing up- ward or downward in the boundary layer over mountain regions.
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