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On Manchu Cultural Forerunners ——Bakshi

ZHANG Dan-hui(Department of History , Liaoning University ,Shenyang ,Liaoning ,110036,China)  
Bakshi was the first intellectual group in Manchu history. During the reign of emperor Taizu and emperor Taizong, they coined Manchu script and translated Chinese classics into Manchu script. They were the forerunners of the Manchu culture and the messengers of the communication between the Manchu culture and the culture of the Han nationality. Bakshi also held military offices, gained military achievements and played important roles during the reign of late Jin (Qing). However, because the cultural level of Bakshi was limited, additionally important changes in cultural connotation of Late Jin (Qing ) had taken place and a great number of intellectuals of the Han nationality joined the reign of Late Jin , Bakshi faded away from the historical stage and died out around the period of time when the Qing dynasty entered Shanhaiguan.
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