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Another Discussion on the Imperial Power

WANG Rui-lai(Institute of Oriental Culture,Gakushuin University,Tokyo,Japan)  
From perspective of history of thought,this paper makes a diachronic explanation on the imperial power in Chinese history,focusing on the view of imperial power of scholar-bureaucrats who are participants in dynastic politics and the consciousness of self-discipline of emperors.Jun(君)or Junzhu (君主)refers to the monarch of vassal state in the pre-Qin period(先秦),and specifically refers to emperor from Qin Shihuang(秦始皇).However,after the formation of centralization of Grand Unification,the scholar-bureaucrats ignored the above difference deliberately.With Confucianism being promoted to the position of a national religion and Neo-Confucianism being popular in the society,they explored a great deal of content of limits on monarchs from the political speeches in the pre-Qin period as theoretical weapons to restrict the absolute monarchical power under monarchy regime.They completed successfully the theoretical displacement from the view of imperial power of scholar-bureaucrats to the self-disciplinary consciousness of emperors by teaching the emperors and princes the principle of being emperor,which makes most emperors dare not go one step beyond the prescribed limit.This paper also explores the relationship between monarch and subject in the actual political operation from perspective of political history.Under the premise of mutual dependence between monarch and subject,the scholar-bureaucrats in all the past dynasties implemented a number of norms to regulate the imperial power in order not to lose the control of the nominal absolute majesty.
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