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《The Global Seabuckthorn Research and Development》 2003-01
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Composition of Seabuckthorn Berries of Various Origins

Heikki Kallio, Yang Baoru, Raija Tahvonen and Mari Hakala (Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland)  
Methods of analysis of sugars and fruit acids (GC-MS, TMS-derivatives), mineral elements (FAAS, ETAAS), volatile compounds (headspace-GC-MS), vitamin C (HPLC), and fatty acids (GC-MS, methyl esters) of triacylglycerols and glycerophospholipids of seabuckthorn, Hippophae rhamnoi-desberries were optimized. The composition of Chinese (CH) berries, harvested in October-November, and Finnish (FI) and Russian (RU) berries at the end of August 1997 were compared to obtain sufficient background knowledge for a protocol of a more comprehensive seabuckthorn pro- ject. The vitamin C content of CH juice was typically extremely high, on average 8 g/1 (4. 2-13. 2 g/ 1), five times more than that of the FI juice. Essential mineral elements were more abundant than is typical in other edible berries, potassium being the major one in the berries (6-14 g/kg d. w. ) and seeds (5-9 g/kg d. w. ). Elevated contents of lead and cadmium in some samples indicated a slight pol-lutant fallout. The sugar contents in the pressed juices varied extremely, from 1 to 20 g/100 ml. The highest values were obtained in the Chinese berries collected in late autumn and the lowest in the Fin-ish berries picked in August. Glucose (50% of sugars), fructose, and a glucose derivative were the most abundant sugars. Malic and quinic acids were the major fruit acids (77-97%) ranging from 4. 2 to 9. 1 g/100 ml juice. The juice headspace was characterized by esters formed of C2 - C5 n-, iso-, and ante-iso alcohols and C4 - C5 n-, iso, and ante-iso acids. Free precursor alcohols of volatile esters were also present. Different origins and times of harvest seemed to have a clear effect on the profiles of volatiles. The oil content of whole berries varied from 2 to 11% (f.w. ) and of the seeds from 4 to 17% (f. w. ). Phospholipids covered over 10% of the lipids. Triacylglycerols and phospholipids of the soft parts (flesh and skin) and seeds had all their typical FA compositions.
【CateGory Index】: S793.608
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