Gene Technoscience and Its Ethics
LI Xingmin;The Journal of Dialectics of Nature, Chinese Academy of Sciences;
Gene science belongs to the so-called "technoscience" or "technologically oriented science". It is one of the most advanced research fields of modern science, which is full of sensitive ethical issues. With regard to the study of genetic technoscience, the Ethics, Law and Social Commission of the International Human Genome Organization has proposed four basic rules, as well as the rules of justice, mutual assistance and benefit-sharing, and seven other practical regulations. However, although we already have general ethical rules and specific practical regulations, as well as methods and procedures for evaluation and decision-making, it does not mean that we can overcome all the ethical problems, because we have encountered many ethical dilemmas, and there will be ethical difficulties that we have never thought of. Therefore, an important scientific epistemology and methodological criterion is often effective in resolving the dilemma, which is good at maintaining the necessary tension between the opposite poles or plural factors. Accordingly, the ethical disputes in the research branches of gene and genome, stem cells, gene therapy and gene enhancement, transgene, cloning and cloning of human beings and synthetic biology are discussed in turn and views on each ethical dispute are expressed.