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The Mechanisms of High-Phosphate-Induced Vascular Calcification in Patients With Chronic Kid-ney Disease

LIU Xiao-Feng;HE Di;CAI Yan;WANG Xian;XU Ming-Jiang;Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Peking University;Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science,Ministry of Education,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Peking University;  
Vascular calcification is the leading cause of cardiovascular diseases in chronic kidney disease( CKD) patients. Hyperphosphatemia is common in CKD patients,mainly because of dysfunction of kidney and dysregulation of hormones. Many studies indicate that elevated plasma phosphate level has direct effects on vascular smooth muscle cells( VSMCs) and drives calcification. Recent findings suggest that elevated phosphate can induce chondrogenic / osteogenic differentiation of VSMCs,promote VSMC apoptosis and activate oxidative stress and inflammation,all of which contribute to vascular calcification. In this review,we highlight the advances in the mechanisms of vascular calcification caused by elevated phosphate and the preventing effects of phosphate control therapy on vascular calcification..
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