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Research Progress of Pathogenesis and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

LIU Jia;DUAN Chun-Li;YANG Hui;Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders; Department of Neurobiology,School of Basic Medical Sciences,Capital Medical University;  
Parkinson's disease( PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The most prominent pathological features are the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the deposition of intraneuronal inclusions named Lewy bodies in most cases. The most prominent symptom of PD is the impairment of motor behavior due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons and the consequent loss of the dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia. So DA replacement( including L-dopa,the gold standard treatment) still remains to be the best treatment for the disease due to its ability of relieving most of the motor symptoms. Growing evidence suggests that a combination of environmental,genetic factors and aging may contribute to PD. Mitochondrial dysfunction,oxidative stress,neuroinflammation,and excitability toxicity contribute to the pathogensis of PD. Currently available treatments for PD,including drug therapy,surgical treatment,cell and tissue transplantation and gene therapy,but their efficacy was unsatisfactory. Here we review the most recent findings and developments about pathogenesis and treatment of PD,and hope to offer some clues for clinical drug development and novel alternative therapies.
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