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Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) Improves Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Disturbance through Reducing Obesity-associated Inflammation in Mice

BAO Bin,CHEN Yan-guang,LIU Jian*(School of Biotechnology and Food Engineering,Hefei University of Technology,Hefei 230009,China)  
Aim: The purpose of this study is to indicate the anti-obesity and anti-diabetes mechanism of bitter melon(BM) through an anti-inflammatory mechanism.Methods: Obese mouse models were induced by feeding high fat diet(45% calories from fat;Research Diets no.D12451) for 12 weeks.Then the mice were divided into four groups according to their diets(low fat diet,10% calories from fat;Research Diets no.D12450B;low fat diet supplemented with 5% BM;high fat diet;high fat diet supplemented with 5% BM): LFD,LFD + 5% BM,HFD and HFD + 5% BM,respectively.Six weeks later,body weight gain,blood glucose,blood fat and other metabolic indices were investigated.Using qPCR,ELISA and Western blotting,we also explored inflammatory cell infiltration,inflammatory cytokine expression and related signal pathways.Results: After dietary supplementation of BM,body weight and blood fat of obese mice were dramatically reduced almost to those in the LFD group.The expression of F4/80 and mMCP-6,characteristic genes of macrophage and mast cell,and inflammation cytokines(MCP-1,IL-6 and TNF-α) in adipose tissue were decreased sharply.The metabolism index of glucose and fat also returned to normal level,and glucose intake related signals(AKT,PPARγ and Glut-4) were enhanced.This study not only explains how BM ameliorates diet-induced obesity and diabetes,but also supplies a preliminary guideline for the development of anti-obesity and anti-diabetes functional foods with BM.
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