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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 1989-01
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STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF ACID RAIN ON AQUATIC ORGANISMS

Wang Deming Li Xinfu Zhuang Dehui Liu Baoyuan (Institute of Hydrobiology, Academia Sinica, Wuhan)  
Acid rain,caused by the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere and their subsequent transformation to sulfates and nitrates,is one of the most widely known environmental issues of the day. The potential consequences of increasingly widespread acid rain demand that this problem should be carefully studied. One of the most pressing issues currently facing environmental biologist is the need to predict the impact of acid rain on water bodies and the effect of acid deposition on aquatic organisms. This paper focuses on the area where acid deposition is most widespread and deleterious and analyzes the effects on aquatic organisms.Depending on various factors, lakes and watersheds exihibit a range of sensitivity to acidification.Studies indicate that the capability of a lake and its drainage basin to neutralize the acid inputs of acid rain is largely predicated on the composition of the bedrock of the, watershed.The death of fish in acidified freshwater lakes and streams has been more thoroughly studied, both in laboratory and in the field, than any other aspect of lake and stream acidification.Elimination or reduction of a fish population is the most obvious biological impact associated with acidification of freshwater lakes and streams. Organisms at all trophic levels within the iocd web may be affected. Species can be reduced in number and variety, and primary production and decomposition may be impaired with a resultant disruption of the entire aquatic ecosystem.Our experiments indicate that the order of relative sensitivity of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix),bighead (Aristichthys nobi/is) and grass carp(Cte-nopharyngodon idella) to acid is fertilized eggfryfingerling. The values of 96 hr LC50 of silver carp are pH5.34,4.51 and 3.80 respectively. The acute effects of acid rain on Daphnia magna are pH4.66±0.19 (24 hr LC50) and pH4.90±0.20 (48 hr LC50). The 96 hr accumulated death rates of Radix swinhoei to acid are 100%, 60%, 20% and 10% at pH3.6,3.8,4.0 and 4.2 respectively.Several topics for future research have been suggested by the author.
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