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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2003-01
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Turfgrass evapotranspiration: a review

ZHAO Bing-Xiang+1,CHEN Zuo-Zhong+1,HU Lin+2,ZHANG Fu-Suo+2 (1.Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China; 2. College of Resource and Environment, China Agriculture University, Beijing 100094, China).  
Turfgrass evapotranspiration (ET) is an important index for turfgrass irrigation. Since the middle of the 20 th century, more and more studies of turfgrass ET have been conducted because of the shortage of water for irrigating turfgrass. The content of turfgrass ET research mainly include three aspects that related to each other: (i)Turfgrass ET rate measurement and comparison. (ii)Turfgrass ET mechanism study. (iii) Turfgrass water conservation study. There are major differences in the ET rates among most turfgrass species. Cool-season turfgrass species have higher ET rates than warm-season species. The range of ET rates for cool-season turfgrasses is 2.7 to 12.6 mm·d -1 as compare to 3.0 to 10.0 mm·d -1 for warm-season species. For cool-season species, the fine-leafed fescue ranked medium, while Kentucky bluegrasss, annual bluegrasss, and creeping bentgrass exhibited very high ET rates. For warm-season turfgrasses, high density, low growing species, such as hybrid bermudagrass, zoysiagrass, buffalograss, and centipedegrass, exhibited the lowest ET rates. The ET rates are also different on the intraspecific level. Reported ET rates for Kentucky bluegrasss cultivars differed by as much as 64%, as great as that encountered at the interspecific level. Verdure is significantly correlated to ET rates of cool-season cultivars, but the intraspecific ET characterizations of turfgrass are variable between diverse evaporative environments. For warm-season species, the intraspecific ET difference is smaller as compare to cool-season turfgrass. Canopy characteristic is an important external factor that influences turfgrass ET. Turfgrasses with comparatively lower ET rates are generally characterized by having a high canopy resistance and a low leaf area. Under nonlimiting moisture conditions, there is a significant negative correlation between ET rate and abaxial stomata density on the interspecific level for warm-season species, but no correlation on intraspecific level. For cool-season turfgrass, stomata density is not reliably associated with ET rate both on inter and intraspecies. The crop coefficient is a key index to decide the optimum irrigation rate for turfgrass. The turfgrass crop coefficient based on Line-Source Irrigation System is more practical than that based on mini-lysimeter measurement. Research indicates that the crop coefficient of Kentucky bluegrasss ranged from 0.60 to 0.80, and 0.50 to 0.80 for tall fescue, based on 1982 Kimberly-Penman equation estimates of potential ET, while maintaining acceptable turfgrass quality. And the significance of turfgrass ET study in China was emphasized. Crop water stress index (CWSI) based on canopy temperature is a reasonable index for irrigation timing. This is however variable because of the different turfgrass species and different seasons, and water conservation capacity also changeable. There is almost no turfgrass ET research in China untill now; the significance of turfgrass evapotranspiration study in China should be emphasized.
【Fund】: 北京市自然科学基金资助项目 ( 60 0 1 0 0 1 );; 中美合作草坪养护管理研究项目;; 由俄勒冈种子理事会 ( OSCMAP)资助~~
【CateGory Index】: S688.4
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