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《Acta Ecologica Sinica》 2012-01
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Effects of exogenous calcium on resistance of Hydrilla verticillata(L.f.) Royle to cadmium stress

MIN Haili,CAI Sanjuan,XU Qinsong,SHI Guoxin Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biotechnology,College of Life Science,Nanjing Normal University,Nanjing 210046,China  
Heavy metal contamination is an ever-increasing worldwide issue due to its toxic effects on plant metabolism and public health.Cadmium(Cd),an environmental stressor considering its toxicity,persistence and accumulation in biota,is widespread in the aquatic environment.As an essential macroelement,calcium(Ca) plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and development in plants,and also has been shown to alleviate heavy metal toxicity in many plants.Hydrilla verticillata(L.f.) Royle,a common submerged macrophyte as a potential accumulator of heavy metals,distributes universally and grows at a rapid rate.In the present study,it was chosen as the experimental material to investigate whether application of exogenous Ca enhanced the resistance of H.verticillata to cadmium stress.To address this issue,the effects of exogenous Ca application(20 mmol/L Ca) on the Cd accumulation,mineral nutrition,photosynthetic pigments,soluble protein,osmolytes(proline and soluble sugar),antioxidant capacity,non-protein thiols(NP-SH) and phytochelatins(PCs) of H.verticillata under 0.01 mmol/L Cd stress were analyzed.The results demonstrated that,(1) Cd stress induced a substantial accumulation of Cd and resulted in serious imbalance of nutrient elements,such as inhibiting the absorption of P,K,Fe,Cu and Mn significantly,whereas exogenous addition of Ca significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd by 50.24% and effectively reversed the Cd-induced imbalance of nutrient elements in H.verticillata.(2) Cd treatment severely reduced chlorophyll concentration,chlorophyll a/b ratio and soluble protein content,as well as the levels of total antioxidant capacity(T-AOC) and micromolecule antioxidants such as reduced glutathione(GSH) and ascorbic acid(AsA).Exogenous application of Ca markedly retarded the degradation of photosynthetic pigments and promoted the synthesis of soluble protein in Cd-treated H.verticillata.It also significantly increased the levels of antioxidant capacity of the tested plants.(3) In comparison with the control,Cd treatment induced a massive accumulation of proline significantly in H.verticillata,which was 108.29% higher than that of control.When applied with exogenous Ca,the content of proline displayed 29.39% decline compared with 0.01 mmol/L Cd treatment.However,the effect of Cd on soluble sugar was contrary to that on proline in H.verticillata,which showed a significant reduction under Cd stress.Exogenous Ca alleviated the decline in soluble sugar level efficiently.(4) Cd exposure dramatically induced the production of NP-SH and PCs in H.verticillata compared with the control.By contrast,the addition of Ca drastically decreased the levels of NP-SH and PCs by 12.52% and 26.01% compared to the treatment with 0.01 mmol/L Cd,respectively.In conclusion,our results have shown that the supplement of exogenous Ca in a optimal concentration effectively relieved the phytotoxicity of Cd to H.verticillata by decreasing the excessive accumulation of Cd,retarding the degradation of photosynthetic pigments,promoting the synthesis of soluble protein and soluble sugar,keeping high levels of T-AOC/antioxidants and maintaining the balance of nutrient elements,etc.
【Fund】: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(30800055)
【CateGory Index】: X173
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