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《Natural Gas Industry》 2012-01
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Causes of and solutions to a low signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data in complex areas,Part Ⅰ: Scattering of surface wave resulting in low signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data

Wu Xiguang,Li Yalin,Zhang Meng,He Jianqiu,Long Ziqiang(Geophysical Exploration Company of Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Co.,Ltd.,CNPC,Chengdu,Sichuan 610213,China)  
A low signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data in complex areas has long been a major problem challenging seismic survey for hydrocarbon exploration.Based on a large number of interference seismic records and field practices,some important conclusions are drawn by progressive analytical methods from simple to complex and from individual to general.Seismic waves scatter when they meet an inhomogeneous object,i.e.a scattering source.The surface medium is the strongest in heterogeneity and the most complex in structure,thus is the major place where inhomogeneous objects occur.Seismic waves such as direct waves and reflected waves may scatter when they meet inhomogeneous objects,but the major energy source of scattered waves is surface waves.Scattering interference is the major cause of a low signal-to-noise ratio in complex areas.In addition,surface scattering sources mainly include interface between two different media,the lower boundary of uneven and low subweathered zones,high surface relief areas especially highly steep mountain areas with high-velocity rocks,complex topography,Quaternary cover areas with great thickness,and areas with solution cavity and dissolved fractures.The scattering sources can be classified according to their volume,scattering number,and geometry of scattered waves.The intensity of scattering is related to the impedance contrast between the inhomogeneous object and surrounding rocks,the volume of inhomogeneous object,distances to shot point and seismic line,slope and relief,the thickness of low weathered zone,smoothness of surface,etc.These understandings are of great significance to the elimination of scattered waves.
【CateGory Index】: P631.44
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