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Progression of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling transduction

ZHANG Yu,SUN Ruili,HU Jinyue (Cancer Research Institute,Central South University,Changsha 410078,China)  
Toll-like receptors(TLRs),predominantly expressed on the inflammatory cells,are members of the pattern-recognition receptor superfamily to recognize the pathogen-associated molecular patterns.Among them,TLR4 is confirmed to be the receptor of lipopolysaccharide(LPS).When bound by LPS,TLR4 activates 2 signaling pathways,a myeloid differentiation factor 88(MyD88) dependent pathway activates mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPK) and NF-κB,and a MyD88 independent pathway activates NF-κB and IFN-regulated factor-3(IRF-3).Through activating these signaling pathways,TLR4 induces the activation of inflammation cells to secret pro-inflammation cytokines to trigger the inflammation response.In addition,TLR4 can induce PI3K-AKT signaling,which contribute to the cell survival and proliferation induced by LPS.
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