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Minimally invasive cardiac surgery

SUN Xiaoning;WANG Chunsheng;Department of Cardiac Surgery,Zhongshan Hospital,Fudan University;  
Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is in the midst of undergoing rapid evolution.For several decades,valve surgery consisted of replacement of a diseased valve with a mechanical or biologic prosthesis by way of a full sternotomy using cardiopulmonary bypass,performed on a cardioplegia arrested heart.During the past decade,this fundamental paradigm has shifted to now encompass preferential valve repair instead of replacement,alternate minimal access incisions,on-pump beating heart techniques,off-pump valve repair devices,robotics,and transcatheter valve devices,multiple combinations and permutations of these approaches abound.
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