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《Geoscience》 2014-01
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Oncolites from Lower-Middle Cambrian Transition of the Western North China Platform: A Study of Their Ultra-fabrics and Biomineralization

ZHANG Wen-hao;SHI Xiao-ying;TANG Dong-jie;JIANG Gan-qing;School of Earth Sciences and Resources,China University of Geosciences;State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology,China University of Geosciences;Department of Geoscience,Nevada University;  
The lowermost Middle Cambrian carbonate succession at western margin of the North China Platform is rich in oncolite. In order to explore biomineralization mechanisms and microbe-mineral interactions in ancient microbialite,microfabrics of the oncoids at micro-and nano-meter scales were investigated using microscopy and FESEM techniques. The study shows that abundant bacterial and organic relics exist in both nucleus and cortex of the oncoids. Microscopically,the nucleus is mainly of micrite,with few of fine bio-and terrigenous detritus, while the cortex consists of light / dark lamina couplets at sub-millimeter scale. The light lamina consists of mixed microspar and micrite,with filamentous cyanobacteria predominant,and the dark lamina is largely micritic,rich in heterotrophs and pyrite grains,suggesting that they may have resulted from different biomineralization mechanisms. We think that the formation of oncoid cortex in early Middle Cambrian basically coincides with those in present microbial mats,all resulting from carbonate precipitation induced by complex interactionsbetween microbes and geochemistry,and from mineralization of grown mats as well. FESEM observation indicates that there exist abundant nanoglobules( 40-200 nm in size) associated closely with extracellular polymeric substances( EPS),pointing a derivation from anaerobic degradation of EPS. Nanoglobules tend to coalesce into polyhedrons( 0. 2-5 μm in diameter),which further aggregate into submicron-scaled micritic peloid encased with microsparitic rim. Bacterial filaments mainly occur in interstitials between polyhedrons or peloids, while EPS often constitute walls of alveolar structures,or exist in various forms at or near the edges of polyhedrons and peloids. The oriented assembly of microfabrics at various scales and regular association of bacteria and organic relics observed within oncoid interior are reminiscent of those recognized in present calcified microbial mats and those revealed in culture experiments,possibly implying a general situation for biomineralization of microbialites. We may,therefore,conclude that the formation of oncoid cortex in early Middle Cambrian may basically coincide with those in present microbial mats,all resulting from carbonate precipitation induced by complex interactions between various microbes and geochemistry as well as from mineralization of grown mats.
【Fund】: 科技部“973”项目(2011CB808806);; 国家自然科学基金项目(41272039 40972022)
【CateGory Index】: P58
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