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On Four Lingual-dental Initial Groups in Hakka and Gan Dialects

Liu Zemin, Institute of Linguistics research, Shanghai Teachers University, Shanghai 200234  
This paper deals with three questions. Are Jing group and Zhuang group in Earlier Hakka and Earlier Gan separate or merged? What are the sound change patterns of Jing group and Zhuang group? Why do the initials of the four groups pronounce t-or th-? Our conclusions are the following: 1) The four Lingual-dental initial groups in Hakka and Gan have a common merger pat- tern, 2) Jing group and Zhuang in earlier Hakka dialect and earlier Gan dialect were divided, 3) Those words among the four groups in Gan dialects pronounced t-or th-are not residues, but are results of sound change of stopisation.
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