Pragmatically Dynamic and Static Analyses
Fan XiaoLanguage and Literature Research Institute of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433
This paper argues that pragmatically dynamic state has two opposite aspects: the aspect of dynamic diversity and the aspect of static regularity. Therefore it can be analyzed both dynamically and statically. The order of the topic and the comment in Chinese is that the topic goes before the comment, which belongs to the routine and static aspect, while in a specific sentence the topic can appear before or after the comment, which belongs to the dynamic aspect. Sentence types, which are abstracted from the functions of specific and dynamic sentences, are static, while their specific uses or analyses are dynamic. The regular focus is a static focus which is abstracted from the isolated and specific sentence, while the contrastive focus is a dynamic focus which is related to certain reality in context and embodies the variability and diversity of the focus. And in reference, seen from a static angle, personal pronouns, proper nouns and “zhe/na+(quantifier)+noun” are definite and “yi +(quantifier)+noun” and “quantifier + noun” are indefinite, while in certain context the static definiteness or indefiniteness of the word reference is not unchangeable. Whether the word reference is definite or indefinite in a specific sentence is decided by the context.
【CateGory Index】： H03