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Phytoremediation of heavy metal polluted soils and water:Progresses and perspectives

Mohammad Iqbal LONE1,2,Zhen-li HE1,3,Peter J.STOFFELLA1,Xiao-e YANG3(1University of Florida,Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,Indian River Research and Education Center,Fort Pierce,Florida 34945,USA)(2University of Arid Agriculture,Rawalpindi,Pakistan)(3MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health,College of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences,Zhejiang University,Hangzhou 310029,China)  
Environmental pollution affects the quality of pedosphere,hydrosphere,atmosphere,lithosphere and biosphere.Great efforts have been made in the last two decades to reduce pollution sources and remedy the polluted soil and water resources.Phytoremediation,being more cost-effective and fewer side effects than physical and chemical approaches,has gained increasing popularity in both academic and practical circles.More than 400 plant species have been identified to have potential for soil and water remediation.Among them,Thlaspi,Brassica,Sedum alfredii H.,and Arabidopsis species have been mostly studied.It is also expected that recent advances in biotechnology will play a promising role in the development of new hyperaccumulators by transferring metal hyperaccumulating genes from low biomass wild species to the higher biomass producing cultivated species in the times to come.This paper attempted to provide a brief review on recent progresses in research and practical applications of phytoremediation for soil and water resources.
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