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Effect of terminal locations of pods on biomass production and ~(13)C partitioning in a fasciated stem soybean Shakujo

Kyosuke YAMADA1,Aoi SASAKURA1,Kiyoshi NISHIWAKI2,Hany A.EL-SHEMY3,Pravat K.MOHAPATRA4,Nguyen T.NGUYEN1,Hideki KUROSAKI5,Syunsuke KANAI1,Junki ITO6,Kounosuke FUJITA1 (1Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management,Graduate School of Biosphere Sciences,Hiroshima University,Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046,Japan) (2Nagano Chushin Agricultural Experimental Station,Shiojiri 399-0700,Japan) (3Faculty of Agriculture Research Park (FARP) and Biochemistry Department,Faculty of Agriculture,Cairo University,Giza 12613,Egypt) (4School of Life Sciences,Sambalpur University,Jyoti Vihar,Sambalpur Orissa,India) (5Hokkaido Prefectural Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station,Tokoro,Hokkaido 099-1400,Japan) (6Hiroshima Prefectural Agriculture Research Center,Hara,Hachihonmatsu,Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0151,Japan)  
This study addresses the hypothesis that stagnation of soybean yield on the farm can be improved by selection of a physiological trait favoring carbon assimilate partitioning to terminally placed pods versus genotypes having axillary pods at close plant spacing.13C was fed to source-sink units comprising a leaf,axillary/terminal pods,and petioles at upper and lower positions of the stem axis in two soybean cultivars,namely Shakujo and Enrei,at different densities of populations.The cultivars differ significantly in architecture,Shakujo bearing a few hundreds of pods in close succession to one another in a terminally placed raceme,in contrast to Enrei having axillary racemes.Pod yield per plant was higher in Enrei than in Shakujo at low density,but Shakujo out-yielded Enrei at close spacing.Population density decreased yield per plant and altered the pattern of assimilate partitioning significantly within the plants for both varieties.At high density more assimilates moved to the upper parts at the cost of the lower parts.The terminally placed pods of Shakujo were advantaged to receive assimilates under density stress.No benefit was accrued to pod filling of Enrei,however,under this condition.
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