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Effects of elevated CO_2 levels on root morphological traits and Cd uptakes of two Lolium species under Cd stress

Yan JIA 1,2,3,Shi-rong TANG 1,2,Xue-hai JU 1,2,Li-na SHU 1,2,3,Shu-xing TU 3,Ren-wei FENG 1,2,Lorenzino GIUSTI 4 (1 Centre for Research in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Remediation,Agro-environmental Protection Institute,Ministry of Agriculture,Tianjin 300191,China) (2 Open Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Food Safety of Ministry of Agriculture,Tianjin 300191,China) (3 College of Resources and Environment,Huazhong Agricultural University,Wuhan 430070,China) (4 Faculty of Health and Life Sciences,University of the West of England,Coldharbour Lane,Bristol BS16 1QY,UK)  
This study was conducted to investigate the combined effects of elevated CO2 levels and cadmium (Cd) on the root morphological traits and Cd accumulation in Lolium multiflorum Lam.and Lolium perenne L.exposed to two CO2 levels (360 and 1000 μl/L) and three Cd levels (0,4,and 16 mg/L) under hydroponic conditions.The results show that elevated levels of CO2 increased shoot biomass more,compared to root biomass,but decreased Cd concentrations in all plant tissues.Cd exposure caused toxicity to both Lolium species,as shown by the restrictions of the root morphological parameters including root length,surface area,volume,and tip numbers.These parameters were significantly higher under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2,especially for the number of fine roots.The increases in magnitudes of those parameters triggered by elevated levels of CO2 under Cd stress were more than those under non-Cd stress,suggesting an ameliorated Cd stress under elevated levels of CO2.The total Cd uptake per pot,calculated on the basis of biomass,was significantly greater under elevated levels of CO2 than under ambient CO2.Ameliorated Cd toxicity,decreased Cd concentration,and altered root morphological traits in both Lolium species under elevated levels of CO2 may have implications in food safety and phytoremediation.
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