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Researches on Scope of Mongolian Yuan Dynasty's Northern Border

Zhang Jian (Department of History, Sichuan Uuiresity, Chengdu 610064, China)  
Concerning the scope of Mongolian Yuan dynasty's northern boundary, the most popular views at home are that it reaches the shore of the Arctic Ocean traversing more than 70° north latitude. Besides, there are other views at home and aborad which think it arriving at 60°or 56° north latitudes etc.. This paper investigates the historical documents, compares with and distinguishes between the ancient and contemporary maps concerned. It analyses and computes scientifically the astronomical data gained by seientifical observations in history and territorial data recorded in historical documents too. In addition, this paper combines those mentioned above with other things in ethnics history, geography, archaeology, linguistics and politios. In the result, I have drawn a new conclusion that the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty's northern border reaches 60° north Latitude generally and its individual Sect Anves at 63°north latitud, the former locating in the south of Russian Sidria and later lying to the north of the Lake Baikal in today. Both southern tip of Hainan Island and northern tip of Lake Baikal locate just along a same longitude. Furthermore the span between these two tips is the farthest in domain of Yuan Dynasty.
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