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On the Decline of the Borderland Towns in Northeastern China during the Period from the End of the Ming Dynasty to the Beginning of the Qing Dynasty

Zhang Danhui  
The paper discusses the rise and decline of the borderland towns in northeastern China during the period from the end of Ming Dynasty to the beginning of the Qing Dynasty. It argues that the Ming Dynasty built many towns in Liaodong because of its important strategic position and the necessity of military defence. During the transition period from the Ming to the Qing Dynasty, however, the towns built during the Ming Dynasty were destroyed because the Late Jin (Qing) Dynasty adopted a policy of "destroying town and moving people". Not until the middle of the reign of Kangxi did the towns resume their vigor; the reasons for this were the emigration of a lot of people and the Qing Dynasty policy of prohibiting to immigration.
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