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The Game of Diplomacy among States in East Asia during the Northern Song Period

Huang Chunyan;  
During the Northern Song period,the competition and maintaining balance of power among big states,the survival of small states,formed complicated multilateral relations in East Asia. The game of diplomacy and the negotiation between two states were very tense,and not just about simple bilateral relationship,but linked to the multistate balance of power. Hua-Yi( 华夷) difference was the basic idea in the game of diplomacy,which however was not dogmatic,but flexible. The name of a stratified relationship under the idea of Hua-Yi was the first target,and the interest was the core pursuit,all behind that was securing the state. The result of the game of diplomacy depended on a state's overall strength,meanwhile it was influenced by diplomatic policies. The negotiation skills of diplomats would produce some influence on the result,but could not change the overall result. The game of diplomacy during the Northern Song period not only had historical common characters,but also particularity under the multistate system.
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