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The Study on Formation of Fumin Ting System in the Qing Dynasty

Fu Linxiang (Center for Historical Geography, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433)  
Fumin Ting was a special kind of the local administrative system and administrative region in the Qing Dynasty. It was developed from Dispatch Ting that was a kind of dispatch institute of Fu Tongzhi and Tongpan on that time. Because both of them worked in the Qing Dynasty, so a kind of standard has to be established to distinguish them. In this paper, a standard has built according to the records in official archives and theory of political geography. Using the standard, the has analyzed the records in Qing Shilu and chorography, then he has gotten the conclusion that the system of Fumin Ting emerged in late of Ming Dynasty and developed in the setting up of new Tings. The milestone of Fumin Ting system coming into being was that Tongguan Fumin Ting was established in 1734.
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