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The Process and Ecological Effect of Provided Beijing with Energy during the Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties

Sun Donghu (Institute of History, Beijing Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, 100101)  
Beijing, as the capital during the Yuan , Ming and Qing Dynasties, its resource of energy such as firewood and charcoal was mostly obtained through the forest in the periphery of the capital. Because of the montanic forest was felled excessively, the regional environment of the northern sector of Taihang Mountains and the southern foot of Yanshan Mountains were seriously damaged at ecology, that was especially prominence in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Since the Yuan to Qing Dynasties, the coal was more and more important in structure of energy in Beijing, but the harmfulness must not be neglected that to landform, vegetation, river and other waterhead by excavated the coal in the Xishan area. A lot of literatures and records on tablets have attested to the process and ecological effect of provided Beijing with energy during the Yuan to Qing Dynasty.
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