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《Journal of National Museum of China》 2015-10
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Water-and-Land Rituals and Evolution of Water-and-Land Painting

Su Jincheng;  
Water-and-land painting is a form of religious portraiture hanged in Buddhist temples during water-and-land rituals. It developed to be mature together with the rituals. Existing historical records indicate that water-and-land rituals emerged in the Southern and Northern Dynasties,while water-and-land painting first appeared in the mid-to-late Tang dynasty and was widespread by the Song dynasty. During the Ming and Qing dynasties,both water-andland rituals and painting became well developed; water-and-land painting was used in Buddhist and Daoist rituals and an independent system of imagery had formed. Water-and-land painting consists of two parts and can be produced as scrolls,mural paintings or prints. Most of the surviving paintings were painted by non-governmental artists in the Ming and Qing dynasties and only a few were works by court painters. The use of fenben(model) resulted in continuation of traditions in figure painting from the Sui and Tang dynasties. Usually a complete set of waterand-land painting may depict more than 500 figures and cover a wide range of topics related to Confucianism,Buddhism and Daoism. Images in water-and-land painting reflect both folk beliefs and religious aesthetics. Water-and-land painting is recognized for its high academic value. Research findings are important for the history of Buddhism,Daoism and three religions together and art history.
【CateGory Index】: J219
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