Progress in Research of Detection, Risk Assessment and Control of the Mycotoxins in Fruits and Fruit Products
LI ZhiXia;NIE JiYun;YAN Zhen;ZHANG XiaoNan;GUAN DiKai;SHEN YouMing;CHENG Yang;Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Fruit(Xingcheng), Ministry of Agriculture;
Fungi are major pathogens to fruit spoilage in the production, storage and transportation, and also are responsible for significant financial losses. In addition to their ability to cause fruit spoilage, some fungi may produce mycotoxins with potential harm to human health. Mycotoxins are a diverse group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi under appropriate conditions. Followed by pesticide and heavy metal, the mycotoxins are considered as another important risk factor which can directly affect the quality and safety of fruits and fruit products. Numerous studies show that the mycotoxins can cause DNA damage and are harmful to human and animal health even at low concentrations. They caused liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract lesions or may be carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic. Therefore, it is important to investigate the occurrence, accurate detection, risk assessment and control technology of mycotoxins in fruit and fruit products. The most common mycotoxins associated with fruits are patulin(PAT), aflatoxins(AF), alternaria toxins and ochratoxin A(OTA) which are respectively classified into 3, 1, 2B and 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer(IARC). Usually, equipments with high standard configurations are needed for mycotoxin detection due to the extremely low concentrations in fruits and their products. Currently the main detection methods for mycotoxins include thin-layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, capillary electrophoresis technology, and so on. However, because of the different chemical structure and properties of special mycotoxin, it is incapable to use a standard method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of all mycotoxins. Therefore, it is a research hotspot to screen accurate, efficient and rapid detection methods for mycotoxins. To date, a total of 80 countries and regions have set the mycotoxin limits in fruits and fruit products to protect the health of consumers. It is to be regretted that there were no regulations for Alternaria toxins yet. Risk assessment results based on toxicological data in many countries were shown that dietary intakes of the mycotoxins from fruits and their products were very low in most cases and may not threaten the human health. Although the mycotoxins in fruits and their products could be prevented and degraded by chemical, physical or biological methods, there has not been an effective technology to complete detoxification in infected products. Hence, it is crucial to prevent mycotoxin production in fruits rather than remove. This review summarized the main mycotoxin types, occurrence, toxicities, detection methods, limit standards, risk assessments and control technologies in fruit and fruit products. And finally, the future research directions of fruit mycotoxins were prospected in order to provide a reference for researchers in this field.
【Fund】： 国家农产品质量安全风险评估重大专项(GJFP2016003);; 中国农业科学院科技创新工程项目(CAAS-ASTIP)
【CateGory Index】： R155.54
【CateGory Index】： R155.54