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《Resources Science》 2010-11
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A Bi-Directional Value-Draining and Its Assessment of the Ecological Economic System in Resource-Based Cities

XIAO Jinsong,WANG Dongsheng (Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China)  
Resource-based cities are generally rich in natural resources and frequently show obvious comparative advantages in resources endowment. It should have brought tremendous wealth to the local government and residents by exploiting local resources rationally. In fact, there is a low economic efficiency for a long time in many resource-based cities in China. Most of these cities are trapping into a paradox of"resource rich, economic poverty"since the 1990s. Many resource-exhausted cities are even facing more serious recession crisis. What caused such a paradoxical phenomenon in China’s resource-based cities? From the perspective of the traditional economic theory, the exchange of commodities between resource-based cities and non-resource-based cities/regions is a type of exchange of equal values, which is based on the labor theory of value (LTV) and the currency theory. Therefore, if measured in terms of money, there is no exploitation of relations between the two types of cities. In other words, there are no value loss and efficiency transferred in resource-based cities at all in that they are just exchanged at equal values in this process. But in fact, the investment of labor and fixed assets are drawn high attention and the value of natural resources is ignored or underestimated in present market systems based on currency, which often leads to overuse or damage to natural resources. This paper focuses on evaluation of the value of resources and their value-draining in resource-based cities using the emergy theory, with an attempt to reveal that these cities are suffering from huge value-draining in bi-directions all the time over the course of their resources products outputting and daily necessities inputting. However, it is relatively difficult to manifest the value of resources and the environment, and value-draining using traditional appraisal systems based on theories of currency and demand value. The emergy analysis methods can circumvent the inadequacy in the traditional appraisal systems by converting different energies (including natural resources) into solar energy and transferring between currency and energy using the emergy/dollar ratio. The authors investigated a coal city Tongchuan, a petroleum city Dongying, and some resources input areas using the emergy methods to make an empirical correlation analysis. Results indicated that there were indeed huge vale-draining in the course of resources products outputting in resource-based cities. Furthermore, some suggestions are given, i.e., establishment of a reasonable compensation mechanism and compensation system, cultivation of substitution or industries, and acceleration of the transformation of urban economy.
【Fund】: 国家自然基金项目(编号:40371046)
【CateGory Index】: F299.2
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